波斯码BOSSMA Information Technology

C#导出Excel后关闭进程(EXCEL.EXE)释放资源的解决方案

发布时间:2009年2月3日 / 分类:ASP.NET / 32,711 次浏览 / 评论

一年前,从网上找到一些C#导出MS Excel的例子,但是都不能彻底销毁其所创建的Excel进程,典型的就是进程中的EXCEL.EXE不能关掉。

网上的解决方案大部分是kill掉所有的Excel进程,偶一直感觉不爽。最近,做了几个月的WinForm,接触了一些进程、句柄方面的知识。于是试着解决一下,没想到成功了,创建的Excel进程被成功Kill掉了,而其它Excel进程则相安无事。

关键代码:

public void KillSpecialExcel()
        {
            try
            {
                if (m_objExcel != null)
                {
                    int lpdwProcessId;
                    GetWindowThreadProcessId(new IntPtr(m_objExcel.Hwnd), out lpdwProcessId);

                    System.Diagnostics.Process.GetProcessById(lpdwProcessId).Kill();
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("Delete Excel Process Error:" + ex.Message);
            }
        }

操作生成Excel的全部代码:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Text;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Drawing;

namespace VeryCodes.Common.MyExcel
{
    /// 
    /// ExcelClass 的摘要说明。
    /// 
    public class MSExcel
    {
        /// 
        /// 构建ExcelClass类
        /// 
        public MSExcel()
        {
            //别忘了需要添加Excel Library的引用
            this.m_objExcel = new Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Application();
        }
        /// 
        /// 构建ExcelClass类
        /// 
        ///
Excel.Application
        public MSExcel(Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Application objExcel)
        {
            this.m_objExcel = objExcel;
        }

        /// 
        /// 列标号,Excel最大列数是256
        /// 
        private string[] ALists = new string[] {
            "A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "H", "I", "J", "K", "L", "M", "N", "O", "P", "Q", "R", "S", "T", "U", "V", "W", "X", "Y", "Z",
            "AA", "AB", "AC", "AD", "AE", "AF", "AG", "AH", "AI", "AJ", "AK", "AL", "AM", "AN", "AO", "AP", "AQ", "AR", "AS", "AT", "AU", "AV", "AW", "AX", "AY", "AZ",
            "BA", "BB", "BC", "BD", "BE", "BF", "BG", "BH", "BI", "BJ", "BK", "BL", "BM", "BN", "BO", "BP", "BQ", "BR", "BS", "BT", "BU", "BV", "BW", "BX", "BY", "BZ",
            "CA", "CB", "CC", "CD", "CE", "CF", "CG", "CH", "CI", "CJ", "CK", "CL", "CM", "CN", "CO", "CP", "CQ", "CR", "CS", "CT", "CU", "CV", "CW", "CX", "CY", "CZ",
            "DA", "DB", "DC", "DD", "DE", "DF", "DG", "DH", "DI", "DJ", "DK", "DL", "DM", "DN", "DO", "DP", "DQ", "DR", "DS", "DT", "DU", "DV", "DW", "DX", "DY", "DZ",
            "EA", "EB", "EC", "ED", "EE", "EF", "EG", "EH", "EI", "EJ", "EK", "EL", "EM", "EN", "EO", "EP", "EQ", "ER", "ES", "ET", "EU", "EV", "EW", "EX", "EY", "EZ",
            "FA", "FB", "FC", "FD", "FE", "FF", "FG", "FH", "FI", "FJ", "FK", "FL", "FM", "FN", "FO", "FP", "FQ", "FR", "FS", "FT", "FU", "FV", "FW", "FX", "FY", "FZ",
            "GA", "GB", "GC", "GD", "GE", "GF", "GG", "GH", "GI", "GJ", "GK", "GL", "GM", "GN", "GO", "GP", "GQ", "GR", "GS", "GT", "GU", "GV", "GW", "GX", "GY", "GZ",
            "HA", "HB", "HC", "HD", "HE", "HF", "HG", "HH", "HI", "HJ", "HK", "HL", "HM", "HN", "HO", "HP", "HQ", "HR", "HS", "HT", "HU", "HV", "HW", "HX", "HY", "HZ",
            "IA", "IB", "IC", "ID", "IE", "IF", "IG", "IH", "II", "IJ", "IK", "IL", "IM", "IN", "IO", "IP", "IQ", "IR", "IS", "IT", "IU", "IV"
        };

        /// 
        /// 获取描述区域的字符
        /// 
        ///

        ///

        /// 
        public string GetAix(int x, int y)
        {
            if (x > 256) { return ""; }
            string s = "";
            s = s + ALists[x - 1].ToString();
            s = s + y.ToString();
            return s;
        }

        /// 
        /// 给单元格赋值1
        /// 
        ///
行号
        ///
列号
        ///
对齐(CENTER、LEFT、RIGHT)
        ///
值
        public void setValue(int y, int x, string align, string text)
        {
            Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range range = sheet.get_Range(this.GetAix(x, y), miss);
            range.set_Value(miss, text);
            if (align.ToUpper() == "CENTER")
            {
                range.HorizontalAlignment = Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlHAlign.xlHAlignCenter;
            }
            if (align.ToUpper() == "LEFT")
            {
                range.HorizontalAlignment = Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlHAlign.xlHAlignLeft;
            }
            if (align.ToUpper() == "RIGHT")
            {
                range.HorizontalAlignment = Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlHAlign.xlHAlignRight;
            }
        }

        /// 
        /// 给单元格赋值2
        /// 
        ///
行号
        ///
列号
        ///
值
        public void setValue(int y, int x, string text)
        {
            Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range range = sheet.get_Range(this.GetAix(x, y), miss);
            range.set_Value(miss, text);
        }

        /// 
        /// 给单元格赋值3
        /// 
        ///
行号
        ///
列号
        ///
值
        ///
字符格式
        ///
颜色
        public void setValue(int y, int x, string text, System.Drawing.Font font, int color)
        {
            this.setValue(x, y, text);
            Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range range = sheet.get_Range(this.GetAix(x, y), miss);
            range.Font.Size = font.Size;
            range.Font.Bold = font.Bold;
            //这里是int型的颜色
            range.Font.Color = ColorTranslator.ToOle(ColorTranslator.FromWin32(color));
            range.Font.Name = font.Name;
            range.Font.Italic = font.Italic;
            range.Font.Underline = font.Underline;
        }

        /// 
        /// 给单元格赋值3
        /// 
        ///
行号
        ///
列号
        ///
值
        ///
字符格式
        ///
颜色
        public void setValue(int y, int x, string text, System.Drawing.Font font, int color, string align)
        {
            this.setValue(x, y, text);
            Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range range = sheet.get_Range(this.GetAix(x, y), miss);
            range.Font.Size = font.Size;
            range.Font.Bold = font.Bold;
            //这里是int型的颜色
            range.Font.Color = ColorTranslator.ToOle(ColorTranslator.FromWin32(color));
            range.Font.Name = font.Name;
            range.Font.Italic = font.Italic;
            range.Font.Underline = font.Underline;

            if (align.ToUpper() == "CENTER")
            {
                range.HorizontalAlignment = Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlHAlign.xlHAlignCenter;
            }
            if (align.ToUpper() == "LEFT")
            {
                range.HorizontalAlignment = Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlHAlign.xlHAlignLeft;
            }
            if (align.ToUpper() == "RIGHT")
            {
                range.HorizontalAlignment = Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlHAlign.xlHAlignRight;
            }
        }

        /// 
        /// 插入新行
        /// 
        ///
模板行号
        public void insertRow(int y)
        {
            Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range range = sheet.get_Range(GetAix(1, y), GetAix(255, y));
            range.Copy(miss);
            range.Insert(Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlDirection.xlDown, miss);
            range.get_Range(GetAix(1, y), GetAix(255, y));
            range.Select();
            sheet.Paste(miss, miss);

        }

        /// 
        /// 把剪切内容粘贴到当前区域
        /// 
        public void paste()
        {
            string s = "a,b,c,d,e,f,g";
            sheet.Paste(sheet.get_Range(this.GetAix(10, 10), miss), s);
        }
        /// 
        /// 设置边框
        /// 
        ///

        ///

        ///

        ///

        ///

        public void setBorder(int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2, int Width)
        {
            Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range range = sheet.get_Range(this.GetAix(x1, y1), this.GetAix(x2, y2));
            range.Borders.Weight = Width;
        }
        public void mergeCell(int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2)
        {
            Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range range = sheet.get_Range(this.GetAix(x1, y1), this.GetAix(x2, y2));
            range.Merge(true);
        }

        public Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range getRange(int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2)
        {
            Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range range = sheet.get_Range(this.GetAix(x1, y1), this.GetAix(x2, y2));
            return range;
        }

        private object miss = Missing.Value; //忽略的参数OLENULL
        private Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Application m_objExcel;//Excel应用程序实例
        private Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Workbooks m_objBooks;//工作表集合
        private Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Workbook m_objBook;//当前操作的工作表
        private Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Worksheet sheet;//当前操作的表格 

        public Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Worksheet CurrentSheet
        {
            get
            {
                return sheet;
            }
            set
            {
                this.sheet = value;
            }
        }

        public Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Workbooks CurrentWorkBooks
        {
            get
            {
                return this.m_objBooks;
            }
            set
            {
                this.m_objBooks = value;
            }
        }

        public Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Workbook CurrentWorkBook
        {
            get
            {
                return this.m_objBook;
            }
            set
            {
                this.m_objBook = value;
            }
        }

        /// 
        /// 打开Excel文件
        /// 
        ///
路径
        public void OpenExcelFile(string filename)
        {
            UserControl(false);

            m_objExcel.Workbooks.Open(filename, miss, miss, miss, miss, miss, miss, miss,
                                    miss, miss, miss, miss, miss, miss, miss);

            m_objBooks = (Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Workbooks)m_objExcel.Workbooks;

            m_objBook = m_objExcel.ActiveWorkbook;
            sheet = (Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Worksheet)m_objBook.ActiveSheet;
        }

        public void UserControl(bool usercontrol)
        {
            if (m_objExcel == null) { return; }
            m_objExcel.UserControl = usercontrol;
            m_objExcel.DisplayAlerts = usercontrol;
            m_objExcel.Visible = usercontrol;
        }

        public void CreateExceFile()
        {
            UserControl(false);
            m_objBooks = (Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Workbooks)m_objExcel.Workbooks;
            m_objBook = (Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Workbook)(m_objBooks.Add(miss));
            sheet = (Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Worksheet)m_objBook.ActiveSheet;
        }

        public void SaveAs(string FileName)
        {
            m_objBook.SaveAs(FileName, miss, miss, miss, miss,
             miss, Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlSaveAsAccessMode.xlNoChange,
             Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlSaveConflictResolution.xlLocalSessionChanges,
             miss, miss, miss, miss);
            //m_objBook.Close(false, miss, miss);
        }

        public void ReleaseExcel()
        {
            m_objExcel.Quit();

            System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal.ReleaseComObject((object)m_objExcel);
            System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal.ReleaseComObject((object)m_objBooks);
            System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal.ReleaseComObject((object)m_objBook);
            System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal.ReleaseComObject((object)sheet);

            sheet = null;
            m_objBook = null;
            m_objBooks = null;
            m_objExcel = null;

            GC.Collect(0);
        }

        #region KillAllExcel
        public bool KillAllExcel()
        {
            try
            {
                if (m_objExcel != null) // isRunning是判断xlApp是怎么启动的flag.
                {
                    m_objExcel.Quit();
                    System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal.ReleaseComObject(m_objExcel);
                    //释放COM组件,其实就是将其引用计数减1
                    //System.Diagnostics.Process theProc;
                    foreach (System.Diagnostics.Process theProc in System.Diagnostics.Process.GetProcessesByName("EXCEL"))
                    {
                        //先关闭图形窗口。如果关闭失败...有的时候在状态里看不到图形窗口的excel了,
                        //但是在进程里仍然有EXCEL.EXE的进程存在,那么就需要杀掉它:p
                        if (theProc.CloseMainWindow() == false)
                        {
                            theProc.Kill();
                        }
                    }
                    m_objExcel = null;
                    return true;
                }
            }
            catch
            {
                return false;
            }
            return true;
        }
        #endregion

        #region Kill Special Excel Process
        [DllImport("user32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        static extern int GetWindowThreadProcessId(IntPtr hWnd, out int lpdwProcessId);

        //推荐这个方法,找了很久,不容易啊
        public void KillSpecialExcel()
        {
            try
            {
                if (m_objExcel != null)
                {
                    int lpdwProcessId;
                    GetWindowThreadProcessId(new IntPtr(m_objExcel.Hwnd), out lpdwProcessId);

                    System.Diagnostics.Process.GetProcessById(lpdwProcessId).Kill();
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("Delete Excel Process Error:" + ex.Message);
            }
        }
        #endregion
    }
}

最关键的就是KillSpecialExcel()这个方法,找到Excel的进程ID,然后杀死这个进程。
断断续续找了很久,终于发现了这个方法。

看一个例子:

protected void Button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        MSExcel mexc = new MSExcel();
        mexc.CreateExceFile();
        mexc.insertRow(1);//注意从1开始的
        int col = (256 * 256 * 255) + (256 * 192) + 192;//颜色
        mexc.setValue(1, 1, "Demo", new Font("Arial", 18), col,"center");//设置单元格内容和样式
        mexc.mergeCell(1, 1, 4, 1);//合并单元格

        for (int i = 2; i <= 101; i++)
        {
            mexc.insertRow(i);//插入行
            for (int j = 1; j <= 4; j++)//注意从1开始的
            {
                mexc.setValue(i, j, i + "--" + j);//设置单元格内容
            }
        }

        mexc.SaveAs(@"d:\demo.xls");//保存文件
        mexc.KillSpecialExcel();//关闭创建的Excel进程
    }

其它方面还没有测试,有兴趣的话可以自己试试。

这似乎是一个完美的解决方案了,但是速度实在不敢保证,而且耗费的内存和CPU资源也比较多。
对于用户少较少的应用还可以凑合,并发多了,真不敢想象。

以前还用过生成csv文件的方法,但是格式没办法设置;
我想能不能直接构建excel的代码格式,然后保存成.xls,但是一直还没有成功。

本博客所有文章如无特别注明均为原创。
复制或转载请以超链接形式注明转自波斯码,原文地址《C#导出Excel后关闭进程(EXCEL.EXE)释放资源的解决方案

关键字:

建议订阅本站,及时阅读最新文章!
【上一篇】 【下一篇】

目前有7 条评论

  1. eolandezhang 6楼:

    谢谢楼主了,可以解决问题。

  2. gaowb 5楼:

    thank you 非常有帮助

  3. freshways 4楼:

    (#‵′)靠,强悍,顶

  4. arst 地板:

    太強了,一堆用Marshal.ReleaseComObject,結果Excel.exe還在

  5. Rey 板凳:

    确实不错,感谢lz

  6. Tim 沙发:

    这篇文章确实难得,网上都找不着,简直是价值连城!